Direct dating in archaeology
Aramaic was the common language of the Jews of Palestine for the last two centuries B. The Scrolls appear to be the library of a Jewish sect. The Essenes were a strict Torah observant, Messianic, apocalyptic, baptist, wilderness, new covenant Jewish sect.
The library was hidden away in caves around the outbreak of the First Jewish Revolt (A. 66-70) as the Roman army advanced against the rebel Jews. They were led by a priest they called the "Teacher of Righteousness," who was opposed and possibly killed by the establishment priesthood in Jerusalem.
They represent a non-rabbinic form of Judaism and provide a wealth of comparative material for New Testament scholars, including many important parallels to the Jesus movement. Derivative works and other unauthorized copying or use of stills, video footage, text or graphics is expressly prohibited.There are nonbiblical writings along the order of commentaries on the OT, paraphrases that expand on the Law, rule books of the community, war conduct, thanksgiving psalms, hymnic compositions, benedictions, liturgical texts, and sapiential (wisdom) writings. The discovery of the Scrolls has greatly enhanced our knowledge of these two languages.The Scrolls are for the most part, written in Hebrew, but there are many written in Aramaic. In addition, there are a few texts written in Greek. The Essenes are mentioned by Josephus and in a few other sources, but not in the New testament.There, the King David line continued: Princes of the House of David were appointed by religious leaders to govern the Jewish community.This person was called , which translates as “head of the exile” or exilarch.